Date Added: Apr 2010
In this paper, the authors present how the HTAP (Hierarchical Tree Alternative Path) algorithm can drastically assist in the uniform energy utilization of a wireless sensor network and the avoidance of energy holes. HTAP is an algorithm designed explicitly for congestion control and avoidance and its operation is based on the creation of alternative paths from the source to sink, using the plethora of network's unused nodes. The creation of alternative paths involves several nodes which are not in the initial shortest path form the source to the sink and assists in safely transmitting the observed data. The use of these nodes leads to a balanced energy consumption, avoiding the creation of "Holes" in the network.