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Microsensors are used in monitoring functions in several hazardous and non reachable places. At such places human intervention is impossible so battery replacement is impossible and hence nodes do not have access to unlimited energy. Thus, designing fault-tolerant wireless microsensor networks with long system lifetimes can be challenging. In order to prolong system lifetimes, energy-efficient algorithms and protocols should be used. So, in this paper the authors study the techniques which are used for low power consumption as these are necessary for system to achieve both flexibility and energy efficiency and maximize the lifetime. Energy is minimized through the use of highly dedicated computational fabrics and through careful conditioning of logic based on signal statistics and by using techniques like DVS, CIMS.
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