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In a Proxy Re-Encryption (PRE) scheme, a proxy is given a re-encryption key and has the ability to translate a ciphertext under one key into a ciphertext of the same message under a different key, without learning anything about the message encrypted under either key. PREs have been widely used in many exciting applications, such as email forwarding and law enforcement. Based on a good observation on the applications of PREs, the authors find that a PRE receiver needs an ability, just like what is provided by public-key encryption with non-interactive opening, to non-interactively and efficiently convince third parties of what he obtains from a particular (transformed) ciphertext, while still keeping the security of his secret key and other ciphertexts.
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