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Low-cost Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is exposed to various security and privacy threats due to computational constraint. This paper proposes the use of both prevention and detection techniques to solve the security and privacy issues. A mutual authentication protocol with integration of tag's unique electronic fingerprint is proposed to enhance the security level in RFID communication. A lightweight cryptographic algorithm that conforms to the EPCglobal Class-1 Generation-2 standard is proposed to prevent replay attack, denial of service, and data leakage issues. The security of the protocol is validated by using formal analysis tool, AVISPA.
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