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The authors rank 5,107 products and 124 countries according to the Hidalgo and Hausmann (2009) measures of complexity. They find that: the most complex products are in machinery, chemicals, and metals, while the least complex products are raw materials and commodities, wood, textiles, and agricultural products; the most complex economies in the world are Japan, Germany, and Sweden, and the least complex, Cambodia, Papua New Guinea, and Nigeria; the major exporters of the more complex products are the high-income countries, while the major exporters of the less complex products are the low-income countries; and export shares of the more complex products increase with income, while export shares of the less complex products decrease with income.
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