Purely Functional Lazy Nondeterministic Programming

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Functional logic programming and probabilistic programming have demonstrated the broad benefits of combining laziness (non-strict evaluation with sharing of the results) with non-determinism. Yet these benefits are seldom enjoyed in functional programming because the existing features for non-strictness, sharing, and non-determinism in functional languages are tricky to combine. The authors present a practical way to write purely functional lazy non-deterministic programs that are efficient and perspicuous. They achieve this goal by embedding the programs into existing languages (such as Haskell, SML, and OCaml) with high-quality implementations, by making choices lazily and representing data with non-deterministic components, by working with custom monadic data types and search strategies, and by providing equational laws for the programmer to reason about their code.