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Modern operating systems have since enabled address randomization (ASLR), which randomizes the location of libc, making these techniques unusable in practice. However, modern ASLR implementations leave smaller amounts of executable code unrandomized and it has been unclear whether an attacker can use these small code fragments to construct payloads in the general case. In this paper, the authors show defenses as currently deployed can be bypassed with new techniques for automatically creating ROP payloads from small amounts of unrandomized code.
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