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In the RFID context, some researchers have dealt with the stimulating challenge of designing secure RFID protocols based only on simple bitwise logical or arithmetic operations such as bitwise XOR, OR, AND and modular addition. This type of RFID protocols are categorized as ultralight-weight protocols, and are intended for very low-cost tags. In 2006, the UMAP family of protocols was introduced and attracted certain attention of the research community. After some rounds of cryptanalysis of these schemes, many (if not all) of its security objectives were circumvented, e.g., with active attacks and later with passive attacks. The authors served, however, as interesting thought-provoking proposals that influenced later ultralight-weight RFID designs.
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