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It is believed that the dimension of the signal space with interval T and bandwidth W is 2WT, while the authors cannot make the out-of-band and out-of-time energies of any waveform zero. They propose a Gaussian pulse shaping for multi-carrier CDMA systems to utilize the time and frequency resources effectively. Gaussian pulses have ICI and ISI; they are not orthogonal. Markovity of spreading codes save the drawback of ICI and ISI. Overlapped Gaussian pulses increase the spectral efficiency. It is widely accepted by electrical and communication engineers that the space of signals of duration T and bandwidth W has dimension 2WT.
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