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Cryptographic random number generators seeded by physical entropy sources are employed in many embedded security systems, including self-encrypting disk drives, being manufactured by the millions every year. Random numbers are used for generating encryption keys and for facilitating secure communication, and they are also provided to users for their applications. The authors discuss common randomness requirements, techniques for estimating the entropy of physical sources, investigate specific nonrandom physical properties, estimate the autocorrelation, then mix reduce the data until all common randomness tests pass.
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