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Node localization is commonly employed in wireless networks. For example, it is used to improve routing and enhance security. Localization algorithms can be classified as range-free or range-based. Range-based algorithms use location metrics such as ToA, TDoA, RSS, and AoA to estimate the distance between two nodes. Proximity sensing between nodes is typically the basis for range-free algorithms. A tradeoff exists since range-based algorithms are more accurate but also more complex. However, in applications such as target tracking, localization accuracy is very important.
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