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The performance of Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) optical networks greatly depends on the spectral characteristics of their components. One key component of WDM networks is the Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG), which can serve as a wavelength router, multiplexer, and demultiplexer. In order to allow the concatenation of many such devices and reduce the need for accurate wavelength control, their filter response must approximate a rectangular function. Various techniques have been proposed in order to broaden and flatten the transfer function of an AWG. AWG is an extremely versatile device that features and combines simultaneously unique periodic spatial and frequency properties and the possibility of integration on a chip.
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