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In this paper, the authors propose a reliable and energy-efficient routing algorithm for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs). They first use a sphere energy depletion model to analyze the energy consumption of nodes in UWSNs. They then extend the model by considering the node mobility in UWSNs. Their analysis is in accordance with the common view that although water flows might cause the underwater environment more dynamic, this instability can actually improve energy-efficiency. However, the nodes closer to the sink still tend to die early, causing network partition around the sink. Accordingly, they propose a Reliable and Energy BAlanced Routing algorithm (REBAR). They explore the tradeoff between packet delivery ratio and energy efficiency.
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