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Underwater acoustic channels induce large Doppler drifts that render InterCarrier Interference (ICI) for OFDM transmissions. Assuming that after proper Doppler compensation the residual ICI is limited to only direct neighbors, the authors propose an OFDM signal design that decouples channel estimation and data demodulation. They investigate eight receivers that are categorized into three groups: three receivers that ignore the residual ICI, three receivers that are based on a Basis Expansion Model (BEM) and pursue channel estimation independently along each basis, and two receivers that are based on discrete-path modeling.
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