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For emerging resource-constrained sensor networks, energy efficiency and computation simplicity could be as important as precision. Existing terrestrial synchronization protocols have already achieved high precision in radio networks, but none of them perform well in high latency networks like underwater acoustic sensor networks: they either assume instantaneous packet transmission between nodes, or ignore clock drift during synchronization process. By addressing these problems, the recent proposed TSHL protocol provides precise time synchronization for high latency networks. However, due to its high energy and computation consumption, original TSHL design is still not practical in resource-constrained applications such as sensor networks which have stringent constraints on system resources.
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