Date Added: Jun 2011
Quantum cryptography utilizes quantum phenomena such as the no-cloning theorem and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle to achieve the goal of secure communication over quantum channels. The object of a Quantum Key Distribution (QKD) protocol is to enable Alice and Bob to securely distribute session keys that can be used for securing further communication. Many QKD protocols have been proposed in the literature. Originally, QKD protocols assume that all communicating parties had been well authenticated before the protocol execution. In other words, without this assumption, these protocols are vulnerable to "Man-in-the-middle" attacks.