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A simple technique to obtain the highest possible diversity order in Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) wireless links is to employ transmit beamforming and receive combining, which simultaneously improves the array gain. This technique requires that the transmitter has channel state information in the form of a transmit beamforming vector. It is often impractical to have a reciprocal channel for the transmitter to estimate the channel, and thus a small number of bits are sent via a feedback path for the transmitter to recreate the beamforming vector. Such systems are known as limited feedback systems.
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