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Cooperative, Peer-To-Peer (P2P) services-distributed systems consisting of participants from Multiple Administrative Domains (MAD)|must deal with the threat of arbitrary (Byzan-tine) failures while incentivizing the cooperation of potentially selfish (rational) nodes that such services rely on to function. Although previous work has generally agreed that these types of participants need to be considered in any formal analysis, there have been differing view-points about what the conditions for rational cooperation, in the face of Byzantine failure, need to be. In this paper, the authors show that regret-freedom, a natural extension of traditional Byzantine fault tolerance that requires optimal choices regardless of how Byzantine failures occur, is unattainable in realistic cooperative services.
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