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A wireless sensor network consists of many low-cost, low-power sensor nodes, which can perform sensing, simple computation, and transmission of sensed information. Long distance transmission by sensor nodes is not energy efficient, since energy consumption is a superlinear function of the transmission distance. One approach to prolong network lifetime while preserving network connectivity is to deploy a small number of costly, but more powerful, relay nodes whose main task is communication with other sensor or relay nodes.
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