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Network wide broadcasting is a fundamental operation in ad hoc networks. In broadcasting, a source node sends a message to all the other nodes in the network. Unlike in a wired network, a packet transmitted by a node in ad hoc wireless network can reach all neighbors. Therefore, the total number of transmissions (Forwarding nodes) used as the cost criterion for broadcasting. The broadcast operation, as a fundamental service in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs), is prone to the broadcast storm problem if forwarding nodes are not carefully designated. The forward node selection has been studied extensively in undirected graphs in which each node has the same transmission range. In practice, the transmission ranges of all nodes are not necessarily equal.
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