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During the last several years, the Internet has evolved from a wired infrastructure to a hybrid of wired and wireless domains by spreading Worldwide interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX), Wi-Fi, and cellular networks. Therefore, there is a growing need to facilitate reliable content delivery over such heterogeneous networks. On the other hand, Application Layer Multicast (ALM) has become a promising approach for streaming media content from a server to a large number of interested nodes. ALM nodes construct a multicast tree and deliver the stream through this tree. However, if a node leaves, it cannot deliver the stream to its descendant nodes. In this case, Quality-of-Service (QoS) is compromised dramatically. Especially, this problem is exacerbated in wireless networks because of packet errors and handovers.
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