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Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides a key conceptual framework to study reward allocation amongst a collection of users/entities in disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research efforts on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy, power, storage, stability, etc., e.g., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, reward allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' overall satisfaction or quality of experience.
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