Date Added: Feb 2011
EU climate and energy policy defines ambitious objectives for the Member States requiring a fundamental change of energy systems. This paper suggests to base the analysis of restructuring options on energy services instead of energy flows. In order to provide the energy services in a sustainable way the guidelines "Low energy - low carbon - low distance" should be used. This refers to an increase in energy efficiency, the reduction of fossil fuels and the reduction of (redundant) transport. An extended technology wedges approach is applied for Austria to illustrate emission reduction options through technological and behavioural changes. Two portfolios of technology wedges are quantified regarding their effects on energy flows and emissions as well as the economic impacts of investments required.