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In his basic model of debt renegotiation, Bester  argues that collateral is more effective if high risk projects are financed. This result, however, crucially depends on the definition of risk. Using the second-order stochastic dominance criterion introduced by Rothschild and Stiglitz , the authors show that it is not a project's high risk, induced by a high probability of default that makes collateral more effective. Instead it turns out that, given the expected return; the probability of default has no impact on the collateral's effectiveness. Moreover, a higher risk of the project caused by a higher loss given default makes the use of collateral even less effective.
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