Robust Passive Hardware Metering
Current hardware metering techniques, which use manifestational properties of gates for ID extraction, are weakened by the non-uniform effects of aging in conjunction with variations in temperature and supply voltage. As an Integrated Circuit (IC) ages, the manifestational properties of the gates change, and thus the ID used for hardware metering can not be valid over time. Additionally, the previous approaches require large amounts of costly measurements and often are difficult to scale to large designs. The authors resolve the deleterious effects of aging by going to the physical level and primarily targeting the characterization of threshold voltage.