Routing Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of small nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Many routing, power management, and data dissemination protocols have been specifically designed for WSNs where energy awareness is an essential design issue. The focus, however, has been given to the routing protocols which might differ depending on the application and network architecture. In this paper, the authors present a survey of the routing protocols in WSNs. The routing techniques are classified into three categories based on the underlying network structure: flat, hierarchical, and location-based routing. Furthermore, these protocols can be classified into multi path-based, query-based, negotiation-based, QoS-based, and coherent-based depending on the protocol operation. In this proposed paper, the advantages and performance issues of each routing protocols also were highlighted.