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A network wide zone-based bidirectional tree is constructed to achieve more efficient membership management and multicast delivery. The position information is used to guide the zone structure building, multicast tree construction, and multicast packet forwarding, which efficiently reduces the overhead for route searching and tree structure maintenance. Several strategies have been proposed to further improve the efficiency of the protocol. Making use of the position information to design a scalable virtual-zone-based scheme for efficient membership management, which allows a node to join and leave a group quickly.
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