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The paper estimates potential energy savings in IP-over-WDM networks achieved by switching off router line cards in low-demand hours. The paper compares three approaches to react on dynamics in the IP traffic over time, FUFL, DUFL and DUDL. They provide different levels of freedom in adjusting the routing of lightpaths in the WDM layer and the routing of demands in the IP layer. Using MILP models based on realistic network topologies and node architectures as well as realistic demands, power, and cost values, the paper shows that already a simple monitoring of the lightpath utilization in order to deactivate empty line cards (FUFL) brings substantial benefits.
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