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In geographic routing a node forwards data packets to a neighbor which is closer to the destination than itself. However, most of the existing geographic routing protocols have not been designed to work effectively in scenarios with malicious nodes. Some protocols use cryptographic schemes, reputation schemes and other sorts of complex and costly (especially for a wireless sensor network) solutions to provide security to the routing protocols. Moreover, these schemes are not able to deal with attacks from legitimate nodes compromised (insider attacks). The authors analyze in detail the effects of insider attacks (Sybil and Sinkhole) in beaconless geographic routing protocols and propose a Self-Protected Beaconless Geographic Routing (SBGR) protocol.
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