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Large-scale mobile Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a novel networking paradigm to explore aqueous environments. However, the characteristics of mobile UWSNs, such as low communication bandwidth, large propagation delay, floating node mobility, and high error probability, are significantly different from ground-based wireless sensor networks. The novel networking paradigm poses inter-disciplinary challenges that will require new technological solutions. In particular, in this paper the authors adopt a top-down approach to explore the research challenges in mobile UWSN design. Along the layered protocol stack, they roughly go down from the top application layer to the bottom physical layer.
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