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Managed languages such as Java and C# are being considered for use in hard real-time systems. A hurdle to their widespread adoption is the lack of garbage collection algorithms that offer predictable space-and-time performance in the face of fragmentation. The authors introduce SCHISM/CMR, a new concurrent and real-time garbage collector that is fragmentation tolerant and guarantees time-and-space worst-case bounds while providing good throughput. SCHISM/CMR combines mark-region collection of fragmented objects and arrays (array-lets) with separate replication-copying collection of immutable array-let spines, so as to cope with external fragmentation when running in small heaps.
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