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Mobile users move across different types of network, such as WiFi, WiMAX and UMTS. The mobile equipment is already capable of connecting to different network types simultaneously, but in such a heterogeneous environment, session continuity is still a challenge when changing connection from one network to another. The differences in properties on the physical layer and link layer promote higher-layer solutions for handover. Several architectures have already been proposed in either the network layer, in the application layer or as hybrid solutions. The application-layer-based Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) supports terminal mobility, but this procedure suffers from long handover delays.
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