Date Added: Jun 2012
Handoff performance of NEMO BS protocol with existent improvement proposals is still not sufficient for real time and QoS-sensitive applications and further optimizations are needed. When dealing with single homed NEMO, handoff latency and packet loss become irreducible all optimizations included, so that it is impossible to meet requirements of the above applications. Then, How to combine the different Fast handoff approaches remains an open research issue and needs more investigation. In this paper, the authors propose a new Infrastructure independent handoff approach combining multi-homing and intelligent Make-Before-Break Handoff. Based on required Handoff time estimation, L2 and L3 handoffs are initiated using effective and timely MIH triggers, reducing so the anticipation time and increasing the probability of prediction.