Date Added: Aug 2012
A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile nodes connected by wireless links; each node operates as an end system and a router for all other nodes in the network. In each communication operation the authors use multicasting technique. In multicasting technique signified for group communication that supports the dissemination of information from a sender to all the receivers in a group while trying to use the available bandwidth efficiently and secure content delivery in the presence of frequent topology changes. So that in multicasting protocols, to choose PUMA protocol because it does not rely on any unicast routing approach.