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In this paper, the authors address a particular attack to the location and neighbor discovery protocols, carried out by two colluding nodes that set a wormhole to try to deceive an isolated remote WSN node into believing that it is a neighbor of a set of local nodes. To counteract such threat, they present a framework generically called Detection of Wormhole Attacks using Range-Free methods (DWARF) under which they derive two specific wormhole detection schemes: the first approach, DWARFLoc, performs jointly the detection and localization procedures employing range-free techniques, while the other, DWARFTest, uses a range-free method to check the validity of the estimated position of a node once the location discovery protocol is finished.
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