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In many applications of wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes are manually deployed in hostile environments where an attacker can disrupt the localization service and tamper with legitimate in-network communication. In this paper, the authors introduce Secure Walking GPS, a secure localization and key distribution solution for manual deployments of WSNs. Using the location information provided by the GPS and inertial guidance modules on a special master node, Secure Walking GPS achieves accurate node localization and location-based key distribution at the same time. The analysis and simulation results indicate that the Secure Walking GPS scheme makes a deployed WSN resistant to the Dolev-Yao, the wormhole, and the GPS-denial attacks, has good localization and key distribution performance, and is practical for large-scale WSN deployments.
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