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The nonlocal behavior of quantum mechanics can be used to generate guaranteed fresh randomness from an untrusted device that consists of two nonsignalling components; since the generation process requires some initial fresh randomness to act as a catalyst, one also speaks of randomness expansion. Colbeck and Kent proposed the first method for generating randomness from untrusted devices, however, without providing a rigorous analysis. This was addressed subsequently by Pironio et al. [Nature 464 (2010)], who aimed at deriving a lower bound on the min-entropy of the data extracted from an untrusted device, based only on the observed non-local behavior of the device.
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