Date Added: Apr 2010
Over the past few years, the Advanced Cyber Threat (ACT) has driven them to evolve the authors' perspective of cyber security and information assurance. Advanced cyber adversaries have growing arsenals that include attacks on the global supply chain, insider subversion, physical attacks on supporting infrastructures, social engineering, and slow-moving cyber attacks. They have established a persistent, embedded presence on some of their networks, and their advanced cyber operations are very hard to prevent or even detect. At the same time, their sponsors' missions have become critically reliant on Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) information technologies with many components developed in foreign countries.