Date Added: Mar 2011
Wireless sensor networks are characterized by dense deployment of energy constrained nodes. in the past few years wireless sensor networks have received a greater interest in application such as disaster management, border protection, combat field reconnaissance and security surveillance. Sensor nodes are expected to operate autonomously in unattended environments and potentially in large numbers. Failures are inevitable in wireless sensor networks due to inhospitable environment and unattended deployment. The data communication and various network operations cause energy depletion in sensor nodes and therefore, it is common for sensor nodes to exhaust its energy completely and stop operating.