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Routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) face three major performance challenges. The first one is an efficient use of bandwidth that minimizes the transfer delay of packets between nodes to ensure the shortest end-to-end delay for packet transmission from source to destination. The second challenge is the ability to maintain data flow around permanent and transient node or link failures ensuring the maximum delivery rate of packets from source to destination. The final challenge is to efficiently use energy while maximizing delivery rate and minimizing end-to-end delay. Protocols that establish a permanent route between source and destination send packets from node to node quickly, but suffer from costly route recalculation in the event of any node or link failures.
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