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Unattended Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) operating in hostile environments face great security and performance challenges due to the lack of continuous real-time communication with the final data receivers (e.g., mobile data collectors). The lack of real-time communication forces sensors to accumulate sensed data possibly for long time periods, along with the corresponding authentication tags. It also makes UWSNs vulnerable to active adversaries, which can compromise sensors and manipulate the collected data. Hence, it is critical to have forward security property such that even if the adversary can compromise the current keying materials, she cannot forge authentication tags generated before the compromise. Forward secure and aggregate signature schemes are developed to address these issues.
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