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Acquisition systems for sub-surface diagnostic (for small earthquake monitoring) and exploration (for new oil and gas reservior) require a large number of sensors (geophones or accelerometers) to be deployed in outdoor over large areas to measure backscattered wave fields. A storage/processing unit (sink node) collects the measurements from all the geophones to obtain an image of the sub-surface for real-time analysis of seismic activity. In-depth imaging quality depends on the number of sensors deployed and on the position accuracy for each sensing device. Current connectivity is cable based and in some cases requires hundreds of kilometers of cabling while synchronous acquisition is obtained through GPS causing large power consumption and degradation in accuracy.
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