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In the seen improvement of device technology, the signal processing speed of today's microprocessor has been increasing dramatically. Now the microprocessors are commercially available with clock speeds of more than 3.2-3.4 GHz for Intel Pentium 4 processor on 90 nm and 65 nm technology. These clock speeds have steadily increased and will continue, through reduction of feature size (now less than 30 nm), but the data rate from microprocessor to memory is still limited below several hundred mega bit/sec. Since all the connections (bus lines) in the computer systems are conventional copper based printed circuit beyond GHz these copper interconnects become bandwidth limited due to frequency-dependent losses such as the skin effect in the conductors and dielectric loss from the substrate material.
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