Signal Reflection-Enabled Geographical Routing for Underwater Sensor Networks
The 3-D nature of the underwater environment has made geographical-routing a popular choice in UnderWater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UW-ASNs). A geographical (geo) routing protocol works by using the position information to find the best route from a source to a destination. These algorithms, often try to minimize the Line-Of-Sight (LOS) Euclidean distance between hops, which is not always possible due to blocked LOS paths resulting in voids (or local minimum). Thus, traditional geo-routing algorithms typically employ a face routing recovery scheme that allows for back-tracking when blocked LOS links are encountered, which adds delay to the data delivery time.