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With the dizzying pace of semiconductor technology development, CPU designers are squeezing previously unimaginable amounts of hardware onto a single chip. Over the next 15 years the authors can expect the number of transistors on a chip to increase by two orders of magnitude, to a billion transistors. The obvious question, then, is how to use these transistors. One possibility is to add more memory either cache or "Primary Memory") to the chip; however, there is a limit to the performance that can be gained by the addition of memory alone. Another approach is to increase the level of "Systems Integration," bringing onto the chip all of the support functions that the authors now find off chip.
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