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Cross-layer interaction of Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) of 802.11 MAC protocol and TCP transport protocol leads to two types of unfairness. In a mixed traffic scenario, short-lived TCP flows suffer from poor performance compared to the aggressive long-lived flows. Since the main source of Internet traffic is small file web transfers, this issue forms a major challenge in current WLANs which is called size-based unfairness. In addition, when sharing an access point bottleneck queue, upstream flows impede the performance of downstream flows resulting in direction-based unfairness. Proposed solutions in the literature mostly rely on size-based scheduling policies.
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