SNAP: SNowbAll Multi-Tree Pushing for Peer-to-Peer Media Streaming

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Given the respective advantages of the two complimentary techniques for peer-to-peer media streaming (namely tree-based push and mesh-based pull), there is a strong trend of combining them into a hybrid streaming system. Backed by recently proposed mechanisms to identify stable peers, such a hybrid system usually consists of backbone trees formed by the stable peers and other overlay structures in the second tier to accommodate the remaining peers. In this paper, the authors embrace the hybrid push-pull structure for peer-to-peer media streaming. The protocol is dominated by a multi-tree push mechanism to minimize the delay in the backbone and is complemented by other overlay structures to cope with peer dynamics.