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Accurate indoor pedestrian tracking has wide applications in the healthcare, retail, and entertainment industries. However, existing approaches to indoor tracking have various limitations. For example, location-fingerprinting approaches are labor-intensive and vulnerable to environmental changes. Tri-lateration approaches require at least three Line-of-Sight (LoS) beacons to cover any point in the service area, which results in heavy infrastructure cost. Dead Reckoning (DR) approaches rely on knowledge of the initial user location and suffer from tracking error accumulation. Despite this, the authors adopt DR for location tracking because of the recent emergence of affordable hand-held devices equipped with low cost DR-enabling sensors.
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