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Dynamic spectrum access and Cognitive Radio (CR) are emerging technologies to utilize the scarce frequency spectrum in an efficient and opportunistic manner. They have been receiving tremendous amount of well-deserved attention in the literature. One of the challenging problems in dynamic spectrum access for cognitive radios is to sense the spectrum in wide band regime of heterogeneous networks to identify the spectrum opportunities. The authors' main goal in this paper is to present the state-of-the-art research results in signal processing techniques for spectrum sensing in CR network to make automatic and wise decision by unlicensed secondary users to adapt their transmission parameters according to their operating RF environment and respect the primary users.
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