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In heterogeneous wireless networks with femtocells, the issue of interference between femtocells and macrocells should be carefully considered. Using cognitive radio for interference management is a promising technique in heterogeneous wireless networks with femtocells. In this paper, the authors study the energy efficiency aspect of spectrum sharing and resource allocation in heterogeneous wireless networks with femtocells and cognitive radios. They use the price of interference to model the interference between femtocells and macrocells. They formulate the problem of interference management and power allocation as a Stackelberg game. In addition, an iteration algorithm based on price updating is proposed to obtain the Stackelberg equilibrium solution to the resource allocation problem for energy efficiency.
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